One of many major automakers tasked by the state of California to meet a zero-emission mandate in the 1990s, Toyota transformed their RAV4 into a battery-electric vehicle. The electric compact sport utility vehicle was equipped with a 67-horsepower electric motor matched with a 27-kiloWatt-hour nickel-metal hydride battery pack. Capable of reaching 78 miles per hour, the 1998 Toyota RAV4 EV could go up to 95 miles on a single charge. Low-rolling resistence tires, air conditioning, AM/FM stereo with cassette player and a cabin temperature preset function was standard on the 1998 RAV4 EV. Between 1998 to 2003, 1,485 examples of the first generation Toyota RAV4 EVs were produced with roughly one-fifth of them purchased by the public in California. In 2012, a second generation Toyota RAV4 EV emerged in partnership with Tesla Motors. The Tesla Motors-designed electrical power unit in the 2012 RAV4 EV generated 154 horsepower while a lithium-ion battery pack allows the small sport utility vehicle to reach a 103-mile range. With only 2,600 second generation RAV4 EVs built, production ended after the 2014 model year.